北方9省市遭遇冬季大旱 专家:缘于水汽条件不足

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河北清河县打井抗旱。(图片来源:资料图)

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连续3、4个月滴雨、片雪未现,冬小麦缺水严重,人畜饮水出现困难。在贵州、湖南等南方诸省遭遇多轮雨雪冰冻袭击时,北京、山东、河南、河北等9省市却是降水持续偏少,旱情迅速发展。据预报,未来10天,华北、黄淮地区仍无明显降水过程,旱情将持续。气象专家表示,水汽条件不足是上述地区没有降水的主要原因。中国环境保护网4~!R3A/b {/V jr}

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降水最少破同期纪录

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自去年10月以来,黄淮、华北地区降水异常偏少,多地破同期最少纪录,气象干旱严重。监测显示,截至1月17日,北京连续85天无有效降水(降水量大于或等于0.1毫米),郑州连续76天无有效降水,济南连续35天无有效降水,天津和石家庄连续25天无有效降水。自去年11月1日至今年1月17日期间,北京降水量仅0.01毫米(微量),追平历史同期最少纪录;天津降水量1.4毫米,石家庄降水量1.8毫米,为历史同期第三少。

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目前,北京、河北、河南等九省市均出现不同程度的气象干旱。其中,山东、河南等省大部出现中到重旱,河南中部部分地区和山东局地达特旱等级,冬季抗旱形势严峻。

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在南方连遭雨水侵袭之时,华北、黄淮等地为何却持续干旱少雨?这样的天气是否异常?国家气候中心主任宋连春解释说,华北、黄淮地区是季风气候区,冬季降水少是正常的气候现象,不过今年相比常年平均来说偏少较多,而且长时间没有降水,这种情况还是比较少见的。

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&JxV!@-WL0y&I|0专家解析说,南方近期降水较多缘于从孟加拉湾过来的西南暖湿气流输送了充沛的水汽,而北方两块相对多雨的区域——东北和新疆的水汽来源分别为日本海和中亚地区。但是“华北平原、黄河中下游和淮河流域,两边都挨不着。这些地区在冷空气入侵时受到西北气流控制,空气干燥,水汽条件很差。而影响南方的西南暖湿气流,势力还不足以深入到更北的区域。这样的大气环流形势长期维持,导致华北、黄淮地区干旱少雨。”中国环境保护网0A;Lk!Uz AYM

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Fu5j2T/Yh4p0中央气象台预测,受冷空气影响,未来10天,南方地区还将迎来两次比较明显的降水过程。但是,在北方由于缺乏暖湿气流的配合,冷空气给北方大部带来的依旧是大风降温天气。预计未来10天,华北、黄淮气象干旱区仍无明显降水过程。中国环境保护网n!@/B.Mm

(N!N1I~u^%Q JK0专家建议,气象干旱区要加强冬小麦田间管理。冬麦区要及时查看墒情、苗情,针对具体情况进行分类管理。对已浇越冬水的麦田,通气保墒,提高地温;有灌溉条件的地区应趁晴暖午后采取小水细灌或喷灌;没有灌溉条件或天气寒冷不适宜灌溉的地区,可采取镇压、施肥及覆盖等措施进行保墒抗旱;对底墒充足、生长正常或偏旺的麦田,要推迟浇水,适时中耕或镇压,确保冬小麦形成壮苗、安全越冬。中国环境保护网o6x(}[(e2L |

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与此同时,要做好蓄水防旱和农田水利基础设施建设。华北、黄淮及江淮北部等地要采取保墒蓄墒措施,以防御冬、春旱的发生。各地还要做好农田水利基础设施建设,修复、完善、配套水利设施,以增强农业防灾抗灾能力。中国环境保护网sJ6l ZA+W$V9['b

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