环保部副部长:土壤一污染就“天长地久”

热度306票  浏览5853次 【共26条评论】【我要评论 时间:2015年3月09日 09:39
 “一位土壤专家在某地旅游时,发现当地的老太太都是弓着身子一拐一拐地走。这位专家隐约意识到可能是痛痛病(一种因吃不良水稻引起的骨质疏松疾病,表现为所有关节疼痛,骨质松脆——记者注),于是采集土壤检测,发现是重金属超标污染。后来我组织专家调查发现,当地几乎所有的土地都重金属污染,老百姓吃了被污染的水稻而遭受难以想象的痛苦。”

  3月8日,在政协提案办理协商会上,全国政协委员、中国科协副主席陈章良介绍了他之前在广西工作中遇到的触目惊心的土地污染案例。与会的许多政协委员都对土地污染状况表示担忧,以至于到了原定的会议结束时间,不少委员还没有得到发言的机会。中国环境保护网${p ^]c]:C't

  政协提案协商会是让政协委员和所提提案承办单位代表就一个问题面对面交流、研讨的会议。今年的主题是“加大耕地保护工作力度,为人民群众提供优质安全的农产品”。在今年两会政协委员提出的提案中,有超过20件提案涉及此问题,分别来自各民主党派和工商联。

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  委员们提到了2014年发布的《全国土壤污染状况调查公告》。据公告的数据,全国土壤总的点位超标率为16.1%。此外,我国农药利用率只有30%左右,而粮食农药检出率则高达60.1%。许多委员一再强调,土地污染关乎所有老百姓“舌尖上的安全”,已经到了极其严峻的地步。中国环境保护网&Gl0M F j?s

  国土资源部、环保部、农业部等有关部门负责人参加了今天的协商会。

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  环保部副部长李干杰称,2006年~2013年,环保部会同国土资源部调查发现,全国土壤环境问题不容乐观,部分地区土壤污染问题严重,环境质量堪忧,工矿业废弃土壤污染问题突出。其中,南方土壤污染重于北方,长江三角洲、珠江三角洲、东北老工业基地污染问题严重。“相对而言,土壤污染的防治比大气污染、水污染更为复杂、严峻、长久,一污染就是天长地久。”李干杰称。

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  农业部总农艺师孙中华称,人多地少的基本国情使我国一直坚持走高投入、高产出的模式,耕地长期高负荷利用,加之工业化和城镇化的发展,造成了我国耕地质量状况堪忧,部分耕地遭到了比较严重的污染,基础地力下降。

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  可防治土壤污染知易行难。

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  陈章良曾带着中科院一行人去广西某地治理水稻田土地污染,原以为下狠心问题很快就能得到治理,后来发现,几位科学家耗费数年时间、用各种办法、一亩地投入数十万元,至今仍然一颗水稻都种不出来。中国环境保护网_'d nc,J5GE,T

  有委员表示,农民无意识也无能力防治土壤污染。全国政协委员、人口资源环境委员会副主任王国发也说,“硬堵不是办法,得给人们找出路。”他以秸秆燃烧带来的破坏土壤结构和增加PM2.5为例。即便出台了禁止燃烧秸秆的法律,甚至有专人看管,但仍然不能解决农民燃烧秸秆的问题,吉林省曾经研制秸秆提取蔗糖,但农民不会把大量的秸秆都运到科研所。

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  治理土壤污染不是一个部门能够完成的任务。中国环境保护网z!sm _1K"j V @%o0Z%d

  协商会现场,国土部、环保部、农业部、卫计委、食品药品监管总局等多部门都表态,将协同其他部门,运用多种手段防治土壤污染。

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  今年的政府工作报告提到,将坚守耕地红线,全面开展永久基本农田划定工作,实施耕地质量保护与提升行动,推进土地整治,增加深松土地两亿亩。据悉,《土壤污染防治行动计划》即“土十条”已经编制完成,将与“大气十条”“水十条”一起成为环境保护的“三大战役”。

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相关立法工作也在提速。李干杰说,2013年十二届全国人大常委会将防治土壤污染立法列入了立法第一类项目,环保部已于2014年年底向全国人大环资委提交了土壤环境立法的草案建议稿。

  孙中华称,针对相关问题,农业部制定了具体方案:加强耕地质量的检测与评价,提升耕地质量,完善耕地质量年度报告,组织开展污染耕地的调查,摸清底数,为大规模开展污染耕地修复治理提供依据;开展耕地质量保护与提升行动,高标准农田、耕地污染退化重点区域、政府提供补充耕地为重点,以培肥地力等为途径,“力争到2020年全国耕地的基础地力要提升0.5个百分点”。中国环境保护网1C%EIJS'eHew

  食药监总局副局长滕佳材称,食药监总局和农业部就保证食品安全的分工及合作机制积极开展了联合调研,两部门去年11月签订了有关协议,并联合印发加强农产品安全的指导意见,就进一步厘清职责,建立农产品产地准出与市场准入机制和体系、检验检测资源共享机制和监管执法的合作机制等达成明确合作意向。中国环境保护网!w%?Tns ?` p

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