中国耕地退化面积占总面积40%以上 污染问题更严重

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日前,农业部在江苏扬州召开全国耕地质量建设现场会,会上透露,目前耕地退化面积占耕地总面积的40%以上。耕地质量下滑背后,哪些因素不容忽视?如何保护好耕地质量,确保国家粮食安全? 中国环境保护网D FwMl!w Kc

  “红线”与“底线”:中国环境保护网Av r Hlr

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  树立耕地资源“量质并重”理念

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  “10年前,这地还是很好的,什么都可以种。但这几年不知道为什么,‘晴天硬邦邦,雨天不渗汤’,现在只能种点儿好活的洋芋,然后套作点玉米。”秋收之后,湖北宣恩县晓关乡张官村村民陈万富准备平整家中的几亩农田,他抓起一把板结的土块感慨道。

?{ d^-rS0 中国环境保护网 HY%bb/Zs8xT"k0h

  在湖北省农业厅土壤肥料工作站,研究员梁华东出示了一张“土壤调查和地力评价”图表。图表显示,目前湖北的耕地中,年亩产粮食800公斤以上的高产田仅占26.1%,中低产田占73.9%。而30年前,按照九等耕地分类法,湖北5000万亩常耕地中,一二等地面积超过60%,如今一等地面积减少了28.14%,而劣质耕地面积则快速增加,六等地增加了两倍多。

UW~J2fVh }0 中国环境保护网$|S ~rHel*E9@e

  数据背后,是我国耕地质量下降的现实。全国耕地质量监测结果显示,在东北黑土区,耕地土壤有机质含量大幅下降,每公斤平均含量26.7克,与30年前相比降幅达31%,黑土层已由开垦初期的80厘米至100厘米下降到20厘米至30厘米,很多地方已露出黄土。中国环境保护网%[6y3\W6N

\vr[h_!}+?9i0  “目前,我国黄淮海平原次生盐渍化严重,东北黑土地地力衰减,土壤有机质下降迅速,西北地区由土壤侵蚀导致的农田土壤退化、中南红壤贫瘠、酸化以及土壤重金属污染较为严重,新增耕地质量低下。”中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所研究员周卫指出。

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NJ0yap&jk0  耕地质量下降给粮食稳定生产造成一定威胁,也给国家粮食安全问题敲响了警钟。“为了确保未来我国粮食安全,国家已经明确提出控制耕地面积不少于18亿亩的‘红线’,但这仅仅是个数量概念,是远远不够的。我们在确保耕地数量的同时,大力加强耕地质量建设,守住耕地质量‘底线’,意义同样重大。”中国工程院院士陈温福如是表示。

(h \2O gQ Y0 中国环境保护网sb ~h5vB.Oj7x

  地力不足与污染加重:中国环境保护网eOl%HRv"Z

6nGc/l*f0  控制面源污染实现“藏粮于土”中国环境保护网Ak I(C.{,LD

l"}1[0l"Lg4H,V R0  一方面是我国耕地基础地力后劲不足,另一方面,则是土地污染加重的问题越发严重。中国环境保护网,PN ^X-AH4B/vQ

(p M:eKk[5F#M0  据统计,我国耕地面积不到全世界一成,却使用了全世界近四成的化肥。目前,我国农药使用量已达130万吨,是世界平均水平的2.5倍。中国环境保护网%I4};G-m2\K

d s)pn+Z EvQN0  “从科学角度来说,粮食产量70%至80%应靠基础地力,20%至30%靠水肥投入,而我国耕地基础地力对粮食产量的贡献率仅为50%。工业废物污染、化肥农药污染和种子产品污染所造成的土地退化现象严重。”周卫说。

P f'LC:Y#Rw0Z'@0 中国环境保护网.[(h3e#z'FcW+F

  专家表示,目前我国化肥用量水平已经很高,受报酬递减率作用,靠增加化肥投入量能够引起的产量增长已近极限,未来应改变仅靠增加农用化学品和能源投入量的模式。通过控制农业面源污染,提高耕地基础地力,藏粮于土,才是建立我国未来粮食安全长效机制、实现粮食安全保障的必然选择。

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(ozev] g'o0  为推进耕地质量保护与提升,此次全国耕地质量建设现场会上提出,未来要全面提高田间设施水平和耕地基础地力,改善耕地质量环境,确保到2020年建成8亿亩集中连片、旱涝保收的高标准农田,让土壤有机质含量提高0.5个百分点、有机肥资源利用率提高20个百分点、秸秆还田达到80%,实现农药、化肥用量零增长。

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  统筹当前与着眼长远:中国环境保护网t/F1ylo/RQ1N;\

dW E,e*d G'~0  建立耕地质量保护长效机制中国环境保护网.A'NK2^D2U!d~|7i

?`xNU|Q0  “2011年之前,这里是四个村庄搬迁后遗留下来1300亩宅基地、道路、坑塘等废弃设施,经过3年复垦整治,这些土地复垦后变成了农田,并和周边农田一起形成了1.05万亩集中连片区。再经综合治理和良种、良法的运用,它们已经成为旱涝保收的高标准农田,今年这里的水稻亩产量达到了1300斤。”在江苏省扬州市邗江区槐泗镇复垦土地快速配肥项目区,区土肥站副站长刘燕介绍说。

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7d|UY6f?Dkum0  农业部种植业司司长曾衍德表示,改善耕地质量要注重统筹当前和长远,统筹生产和生态、工程和工艺、农机与农艺,从改良酸化、盐渍化等障碍土壤、培肥地力、保水保肥、控污修复等几方面作出努力。

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8yd b)AI.i[?1u0  陈温福则指出,未来还应探索并推动设立耕地建设和保护补偿政策,为耕地质量的建设提供资金保障。建议国家在土地出让收益用于农业土地开发不低于15%的基础上,再追加30%以上设立提升现有耕地质量专项资金,用于秸秆还田、增施有机肥和土壤改良剂等培肥地力。

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  目前,我国没有耕地质量管理方面的专门法规,只是在《土地管理法》和《基本农田保护条例》中作了一些原则性的规定。由于缺乏相应的耕地质量管理法律法规,导致难以对耕地质量进行把关,对破坏耕地或造成耕地质量下降的行为难以进行及时有效的处罚。对此,专家建议,应在实施耕地质量建设行动的同时,做好永久基本农田划定工作,加强耕地质量监测体系建设,加强耕地质量保护立法进程,把耕地质量保护纳入常态化、法制化和规范化轨道。(本报记者 李慧 本报通讯员 李萍)

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