近七成受访者感觉空气监测数据和直观感受不符

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北京近期大雾频发,官方空气污染数据遭质疑。漫画:徐骏 北京近期大雾频发,官方空气污染数据遭质疑。漫画:徐骏

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r2j i%k0i2q/Wb1X8Q0  作者:黄冲

K!Q\b*CKfbv0 中国环境保护网c P}#Gj+]|(d

  周日,北京某出版社编辑张同冰,去了趟位于北京西郊的京西古道。爬到海拔1500米左右的地方,眼前的景象让他颇为震撼,空气中弥漫着浓浓的雾气,大风吹过,铺天盖地地漫卷过来。中国环境保护网|u0w#F)v Q

*m$o5W6S?x.M#c#DF%n4w'k0  然而,一向自觉身体不错的他,回到家就感觉不舒服,嗓子尤其难受。后来他才知道,那种雾气其实是一种“霾”,含有多种对人体有害的物质。中国环境保护网Bbq7Utp xA

1Vm)TR?9J0  近日,全国范围内普遍出现的雾霾天气,引发全社会对于城市空气质量监测标准和污染问题的追问。中国青年报社会调查中心通过民意中国网和搜狐新闻中心,上周对1604人进行的一项在线调查显示,多达79.2%的受访者表示,自己所在城市近期的雾霾天气严重。中国环境保护网2bMwX iE-a;D

中国环境保护网~eT7k+]G

  72.7%受访者感觉当下空气质量较差

)]%h |ri)j2kD0 中国环境保护网*\ Q~O-V:W

  连着几天,张同冰不敢再随意出门,有时想下楼遛个弯,但是看到大雾弥漫的景象,又缩回去了。张同冰开始怀念起冬天刮大风的日子,“虽然很冷,但毕竟把废气刮跑了。”

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ZhD!u@lz0  对于当下空气质量,72.7%的受访者感觉较差,感觉“好”的仅占15.6%。11.7%的人感觉“不好说”。

|zTH l)e/s0 中国环境保护网;s-YAvV5G]$[9}

  据北京环保局10月31日公布的数据,10月北京市空气质量二级及好于二级天数为19天,比去年同期减少6天。减少的天数虽然不多,但是公众的身体感受却大不相同,尤其是在这种雾霾天气中,很多人感觉到嗓子和肺部不舒服。这让很多人质疑环保部门的监测数据。

mpXg+d I3y0 中国环境保护网-} q}XO.~sz

  调查显示,69.8%的人感觉环保部门的空气质量监测数据和自己的直观感受“不相符”。

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+HY-M,F'K yhnD0  环保NGO组织自然之友总干事李波,最近去了昆明、成都、广州等南方城市出差。每次回北京一下飞机他总有很强烈的感受,“特别是遇上阴霾天气,立刻就感觉喘不过气来,鼻子不舒服,空气里还有一股淡淡的烧焦味道。很多人都有类似的感受。”中国环境保护网 v3oEw^8}

中国环境保护网!H3X\;?(b}9|

  张同冰说,大家都感到污染很严重了,有关部门却说轻度污染,怎能不让人质疑?准确的数据才能指导大家采取更好的防护措施。中国环境保护网V(f ~,{-^ q I

中国环境保护网~/NdYJ+]

  55.3%的人认为空气质量监测和治理标准滞后中国环境保护网gp^2Ev)NC

中国环境保护网"j3IaCiX5K*B

  调查中,55.3%的人认为目前“空气质量监测和治理标准滞后”。

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,b/D(Rol@1A|#q)Sg0  中科院政策所科技政策和环境政策方向副研究员袁志彬表示,目前的《环境空气质量标准》是从1996年开始实施的,如今人们的环境意识和要求、污染物的数量和类型等都发生了巨大变化,标准已经远远滞后于现实。中国环境保护网,Ut%Xh b&M c

中国环境保护网%mI,~/sQPL

  据了解,作为雾霾天的重要衡量指标,PM2.5(大气中直径小于或等于2.5微米的颗粒物,也称为可入肺颗粒物编者注)在美国、日本、德国、澳大利亚、印度等国都已纳入国家空气质量的强制性限制标准,我国则仍采用PM10的监测标准(直径等于或小于10微米,可以进入人的呼吸系统的颗粒物编者注)。中国环境保护网+l0mXF mPt u7~

U"RHC#m5`'H0  据东方网消息,《环境空气PM10和PM2.5的测定重量法》已于11月1日起在我国实施,这是国家首次对细颗粒物PM2.5的测定进行规范。但在环保部近期进行的《环境空气质量标准》修订中,对于PM2.5仅设立了参考限值。这一标准的“编制说明”解释:目前PM2.5污染较重,如果实施PM2.5标准,我国空气质量将大范围超标。

/_n[:xZ(A)O0 中国环境保护网RX*k-{B$\

  袁志彬认为,PM2.5之所以不能纳入标准,是因为当经济增长与环境出现冲突时,很多地方仍把经济增长放在优先位置上。中国环境保护网K jC5fg-[V

u UNd&Kc0  李波认为,之所以不采用PM2.5标准,政府也许是担心数据会让社会产生不安定因素。但实际上,官方数据和解释的公信力出现问题,才是最大的不安定因素。他同时强调,要注意标准问题背后利益集团的游说,比如燃油供应集团、机动车生产商等。中国环境保护网Z+s!O]w$p m.z8K;S

;W){je }0  北京某事业单位员工赵红玉,平常都是骑车上班。由于没有专门的自行车道,她每天只能小心翼翼地在各式汽车中间穿梭。汽车尾气很难闻,她不得不戴着口罩上路。但即使这样,这几天,她仍然患上了鼻炎。中国环境保护网B0OC.a8V

7XC2E)jVs i0  2010年11月,环保部发布的《中国机动车污染防治年报》显示,机动车尾气排放已经成为我国大中城市空气污染的主要来源之一。部分地区甚至出现了每年200多天的雾霾天气,这些问题都与机动车排放的氮氧化物、细颗粒物等污染物直接相关。中国环境保护网1q-tGU{.HGW)T

中国环境保护网t!D_f)|cx

  这一情况也获得了公众认可,调查显示77.6%的人认为造成空气污染的原因是“汽车迅猛增长,尾气排放超标”。中国环境保护网o8IO3[AD5A

K|q+PY3J2L+^!N0  李波说,很多研究表明,城市的流动性、通勤的效率和城市经济增长有很大关系。当前最重要的是提高出行效率,要做到有效控制私家车增长的同时,给市民提供更多高效的公交出行方式,解决公交接驳问题。

Ncq!ofz0 中国环境保护网4V[5L%@I|

  调查还显示,为减少汽车污染,79.4%的人建议“真正实施公交优先”;70.2%的人建议“严格控制燃油质量,推广清洁燃油供应”;68.1%的人希望“推广绿色能源汽车,限制大排量汽车”;60.9%的人希望“实施严格机动车排放标准”;51.4%的人希望“限制汽车数量”;48.5%的人建议“建立机动车冒黑烟举报制度”。

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;~3I(n,s9i7gDiv0  “公众的健康受损就是很严重的代价”中国环境保护网y+txVc"y#i7j j

中国环境保护网|$T/x)D(K u_aQa

  安徽省某县级市发改委的刘飞(化名)告诉记者,影响当地空气质量的主要污染源,是工业污染的排放物,包括纸厂、木器加工厂、活性炭生产厂等。当地虽然有环保准入制度,但一些老企业即使达不到标准,也不能停产,只能督促改进。

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NrCK\5V9t0  “现在治理污染的最大困难,就是与经济发展的思路相悖。”刘飞直言,不少官员在公众场合强调要重视环境,但内心还是更重视GDP、工业增加值,“光保护环境了,经济上不去,政绩上不去,怎么在官场上混?”

5t t.~rF!Vt0 中国环境保护网ye+K0Uz1h!uj

  在工作中,刘飞经常接触一些环境质量监测数据。他发现,这些数据只能起到参考作用,有时还会起负面作用。一些高能耗高污染企业,见到一些地方环境特别好,可能就不愿意来,因为知道这些地方可能要求比较严,环评通不过。中国环境保护网c@Ua!l

中国环境保护网:_[r4OgQ

  调查中,对于造成空气污染的原因,85.3%的人直指“某些地方政府GDP至上,工业污染严重”。对于治理空气污染,69.4%的人建议“城市规划要充分考虑环境空气问题”;63.9%的人希望“公布更精确的监测数据”;60.0%的人建议“对社会生产进行动态调控,调节污染源总量”;55.3%的人表示“各地不能各自为战,应统筹考虑、联手防治”。

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4i ?6t$n(Pu#q6Q0  李波认为,政府对污染企业一定要加强监控力度,弄清楚企业排放气体对公众健康的影响,不能总以经济发展的理由让大家忍着。事实上,环境污染造成的健康代价,已经在很大程度上影响GDP了。中国环境保护网2O_9[B1W _^)x

中国环境保护网*a&c DiL%D ll$@

  他介绍,在日本,老百姓可以去市政厅申请一种一次性简易试剂,用来检测家里或周边某些物质含量是否超标。市政厅让公众检测出于两个目的:一是让公众亲自参与,认识到问题的严重性;二是公众可以监督周边企业,对企业形成压力。中国环境保护网,EW4u*d7eTJ(v

(\m GcI:fJX?j0  对于空气污染,普通人能做些什么?54.1%的人表示,“出门尽量乘坐公共交通工具”;32.1%的人选择“不开车”;38.1%的人“关注空气质量监测情况”;29.0%的人“掌握雾霾天防护知识并向身边人宣传”。

-K8w"aB~:RT qD8L%D5A0 中国环境保护网2lD jte(td~

  面对雾霾天气,不少人已在采取自我防护措施。63.2%的人表示会“减少外出”,51.5%的人“关闭门窗”,39.2%的人“出门戴口罩”;21.9%的人会“购买空气净化器”。中国环境保护网%y*j,i'qL

中国环境保护网a2MN{?$tR@-J'l

  李波前两天经过鸟巢,看到在大雾天气里,还有不少学生在晨跑。有的学生跑累了就靠在树上大喘气。这让他很担忧:孩子的健康会不会受影响?中国环境保护网)@fV)c&|rpZ

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  针对雾霾天气,袁志彬认为,应该建立起专门的预警和应急机制。比如空气质量达到三级或四级以上污染水平时,室外体育课等露天活动必须取消;对在空气污染环境中工作的岗位提供补贴;同时通过媒体发布公告,建议人们尽量减少外出。

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m2Pmm%`-Q0  “应该建立一些预警机制,公众的健康受损就是很严重的社会代价。”李波建议,教育部要考虑改变孩子的锻炼方式,以适应环境和气候的变化。卫生部门也应该出台相应标准,比如在什么样的天气不适宜做哪类运动,还应该编制一些手册,指导公众在特殊天气应注意什么。中国环境保护网r.qwIj \d h?

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  调查中,55.6%的人希望建立雾霾指数预报和预警机制;44.7%的人希望,有关机构加强指导工作,帮助民众抵御雾霾伤害。

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